8 age) was in fact randomized to each and every day calcium supplements (step one,200 milligrams) to own several years. Whenever you are zero escalation in the danger to have prostate malignant tumors could have been claimed throughout the a great ten.step 3-season follow-upwards, calcium supplements supplements led to a significant risk lack of that point spanning of two years immediately after medication reach a couple of years just after medication finished (150). When you look at the a look at the new literary works wrote last year, the usa Department to own Health care Look and you will Top quality indicated that maybe not the epidemiological degree discovered an association anywhere between calcium intake and you will prostate malignant tumors (151). This new comment reported that six out-of 11 observational degree were unsuccessful to obtain statistically significant positive contacts between prostate disease and you may calcium consumption. Yet, within the four degree, every single day consumption off 921 so you can dos,000 milligrams away from calcium was basically seen to be associated with a keen enhanced risk of development prostate malignant tumors when compared to intakes starting regarding 455 to at least one,100 mg/date (151). Inconsistencies one of studies strongly recommend cutting-edge interactions amongst the risk circumstances getting prostate malignant tumors, plus reflect the difficulties of assessing the outcome from calcium supplements consumption for the 100 % free-life some one. Particularly, the truth that individuals with highest milk products and/otherwise calcium intakes was seen to be prone to feel involved with suit life-style or higher planning look for medical attention can be mitigate brand new mathematical requirement for a connection having prostate malignant tumors exposure (152).
Manage calcium supplements enhance the exposure to have cardiovascular disease?
Several observational training and randomized regulated trials have raised concerns away from the possibility negative effects from calcium towards the aerobic risk. The analysis of information in the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Basis and you will Reduction (OSTPRE) possible analysis found that users away from calcium supplements amongst 10,555 Finnish females (ages 52-62 ages) had good fourteen% greater risk of developing coronary artery state than the non-complement users during the a mean realize-right up off six.75 years (153). The target study of 23,980 members (35-64 years old) of one’s Heidelberg cohort of your own European Prospective Studies towards Cancer tumors and Nutrition cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) noticed that supplemental calcium consumption is actually definitely for the chance out-of myocardial infarction (heart attack) but not to the likelihood of stroke or cardiovascular disease (CVD)-associated death shortly after a suggest go after-right up out of 11 ages (154). Yet ,, the utilization of calcium supplements (?400 milligrams/day compared to. 0 mg/day) is actually of this an elevated threat of CVD-related mortality into the 219,059 boys, yet not into the 169,170 lady, as part of the Federal Institute regarding Fitness (NIH)-AARP Diet and Wellness data and you can then followed to own a suggest months away from twelve age. CVD mortality for the males has also been found to be significantly highest that have full (dieting plus extra) calcium intakes of 1,500 mg/big date and you will a lot more than (155).
Before the relationship between calcium supplements and you may prostate cancer tumors was made clear, it’s reasonable for men to consume all in all, step 1,100000 to 1,2 hundred milligrams/day’s calcium supplements (diet and pills joint), that is demanded from the Food and Nutrients Panel of your Institute of Medicine (look for RDA) (9)
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).